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Ketamine Research

Research Overview of Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy

New service coming this summer. Contact us to join the waitlist. 

“This is a game changer”

~ John Krystal, MD, chief psychiatrist at Yale Medicine, pioneer ketamine researcher



Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy

Ketamine: “the Anti-Medication” Medication

“With most medications, like valium, the anti-anxiety effect you get only lasts when it is in your system. When the valium goes away, you can get rebound anxiety. When you take ketamine, it triggers reactions in your cortex that enable brain connections to regrow. It’s the reaction to ketamine, not the presence of ketamine in the body that constitutes its effects”

~ John Krystal, MD, chief psychiatrist at Yale Medicine, pioneer ketamine researcher


History of Ketamine for Depression


In 2000, a Yale University group (Berman et al) reported the rapidly acting antidepressant effects of ketamine in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in the first double‐blinded, placebo‐controlled trial of ketamine for MDD. Previously, Krystal et al (1994) established dosage guidance in their seminal study on the use of Ketamine for depression. Later studies have replicated the robust antidepressant effect of ketamine and showed that ketamine significantly reduces suicidal ideation in patients with depression.

Murrough et al (2013) gave six ketamine infusions over a 12‐day period in treatment‐resistant MDD patients, and 70.8% of these patients were responders to ketamine. In 2016 Singh et al demonstrated that twice‐ and thrice‐a‐week infusions of ketamine maintained the antidepressant efficacy in treatment‐resistant MDD patients. Mandal (2019) showed significant improvement in depression, anxiety and severity of illness starting within one hour of the first of 6 ketamine administrations and lasting until the 1-month follow-up.


How Does Ketamine Work?

Studies from Yale research labs showed that the drug ketamine, which was widely used as anesthesia during surgeries, triggers glutamate production, which, in a complex, cascading series of events, prompts the brain to form new neural connections. This makes the brain more adaptable and able to create new pathways, and gives patients the opportunity to develop more positive thoughts and behaviors. This was an effect that had not been seen before, even with traditional antidepressants. 

~ Jennifer Chen in Yale Medicine ketamine review article (2022)

70.8% of depressed patients were responders to ketamine

ketamine significantly reduces suicidal ideation in patients with depression

Experts say ketamine needs to be part of a comprehensive treatment plan for depression

“Patients will call me up and say they don’t want any other medication or psychotherapy, they just want ketamine, and I have to explain to them that it is very unlikely that a single dose, or even several doses of ketamine alone, will cure their depression … it (ketamine) may provide rapid benefits that can be sustained with comprehensive treatment plans … it (ketamine) appears to help facilitate the creation new neural pathways that can help them develop resiliency and protect against the return of the depression.” 

~ Gerard Sanacora, MD, PhD, Yale Psychiatrist involved in many ketamine studies

At the Catalyst Center we offer Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy, a comprehensive ketamine treatment program designed to maximize the efficacy of this cutting edge treatment


Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy (KAP) combines the biochemical benefits of ketamine with evidence-based psychotherapy allowing you to maximize the positive impact of ketamine in your life. Initial research supports the promise of this approach to treatment.

Our findings suggest that KAP is an effective method for decreasing depression and anxiety in a private practice setting

~ Dore et al 2019

Change Begins Here

Contact Us to join the waitlist for our summer Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy Intensives

Selected Bibliography of Ketamine Research


Read our summary of Ketamine Vs Esketamine (Spravato)

Ketamine vs Esketamine (Spravato)

Clinical Outcome Data for Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy (KAP)

Dore J, Turnipseed B, Dwyer S, Turnipseed A, Andries J, Ascani G, Monnette C, Huidekoper A, Strauss N, Wolfson P. Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy (KAP): Patient Demographics, Clinical Data and Outcomes in Three Large Practices Administering Ketamine with Psychotherapy. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2019 Apr-Jun;51(2):189-198. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2019.1587556. Epub 2019 Mar 27. PMID: 30917760. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30917760/

Overview of recent developments in ketamine for depression:

Chen, Jennifer (2022). How Ketamine Drug Helps with Depression. Yale Medicine. https://www.yalemedicine.org/news/ketamine-depression

Overview history of Ketamine research:

Hashimoto K. (2019). Rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine, its metabolites and other candidates: A historical overview and future perspective. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 73(10), 613–627. https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12902

First RTC of Ketamine for Depression:

Berman, R. M., Cappiello, A., Anand, A., Oren, D. A., Heninger, G. R., Charney, D. S., & Krystal, J. H. (2000). Antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients. Biological psychiatry, 47(4), 351–354. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3223(99)00230-9

Seminal Study establishing 0.5 mg/kg as base dose

Krystal, J. H., Karper, L. P., Seibyl, J. P., Freeman, G. K., Delaney, R., Bremner, J. D., Heninger, G. R., Bowers, M. B., Jr, & Charney, D. S. (1994). Subanesthetic effects of the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, ketamine, in humans. Psychotomimetic, perceptual, cognitive, and neuroendocrine responses. Archives of general psychiatry, 51(3), 199–214. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950030035004

Study showing 70.8% of TRD responded to 6 ketamine sessions over 12 days:

Murrough, J. W., Perez, A. M., Pillemer, S., Stern, J., Parides, M. K., aan het Rot, M., Collins, K. A., Mathew, S. J., Charney, D. S., & Iosifescu, D. V. (2013). Rapid and longer-term antidepressant effects of repeated ketamine infusions in treatment-resistant major depression. Biological psychiatry, 74(4), 250–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.06.022

Study showing twice and three times per week administrations maintained efficacy with major depressive disorder:

Singh, J. B., Fedgchin, M., Daly, E. J., De Boer, P., Cooper, K., Lim, P., Pinter, C., Murrough, J. W., Sanacora, G., Shelton, R. C., Kurian, B., Winokur, A., Fava, M., Manji, H., Drevets, W. C., & Van Nueten, L. (2016). A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Frequency Study of Intravenous Ketamine in Patients With Treatment-Resistant Depression. The American journal of psychiatry173(8), 816–826. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.16010037

Efficacy of ketamine persists at 1 month follow up:

Mandal, S., Sinha, V. K., & Goyal, N. (2019). Efficacy of ketamine therapy in the treatment of depression. Indian journal of psychiatry, 61(5), 480–485. https://doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_484_18


Begin Your Journey

If you are interested in learning more about The Catalyst Center Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy program, or to join our waitlist for the next available KAP intensive, fill out the form below or give us a call at 720-675-7123

Meet Our Ketamine Assisted Psychotherapy Team

Adrienne Long

Adrienne is a board-certified, Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioner (PMHNP). She provides Medication Management. She is dedicated to collaborative, evidence-based, and integrative care for adults, adolescents, and children. 

Sarah Long

Sarah sees her role as walking alongside her clients on the journey towards greater health, meeting you where you are now and helping you take the next step in your journey when you are ready.

Allison Kalivas

Allison’s is not afraid to be in a tough place with you. She knows that coming into therapy can be a vulnerable experience. She will be your co-pilot, sitting with you in your experience and motivating you to focus on your goals.

Kendra Doukas

Kendra Doukas is passionate about her work helping individuals, couples, and families to heal and rebuild after major losses and traumatic events.

Karmen Thulin

If you are ready to make a change and give yourself the gift of healing, Karmen may be a great fit for you. She is easy to connect with, deeply compassionate, and has the training and knowledge needed to help you reach your goals.

Joey Tadie

Dr. Joey Tadie is a talented psychologist with a gift for connecting with people and helping them to transform their lives.

Erin Jacklin

Dr. Erin Jacklin is the owner and clinical director of The Catalyst Center. She hand-picked each therapist at the center.

Our Blog

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